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28.06.2022, . 11:16


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Chapter VII. Campaigning During Elections and Referenda

Article 37. The Right to Election Campaigning

Article 38. Campaigning Time Terms

Article 39. General Terms and Conditions of the Access of Candidates, Electoral Associations, Electoral Blocs, Referendum Initiative Groups to Mass Media

Article 40. Terms and Conditions for Campaigning through Electronic Mass Media

Article 41. Terms and Conditions for Campaigning through Printed Mass Media

Article 42. Conditions of Election Campaigning Through Public Events

Article 43. Conditions for Dissemination of Printed Propaganda Materials

Article 44. Guarantees of the Rights of Referendum Participants to Timely Acquaintance with the Text of a Draft Law, Draft of a Normative Legal Act Put to a Referendum

Article 45. Misuse of the Right to Election Campaigning


Article 37. The Right to Election Campaigning

1. The state shall guarantee free election campaigning to citizens of the Russian Federation, public associations, political parties during elections and referenda, in compliance with federal constitutional laws, federal laws, laws of Subjects of Russian Federation.

2. Citizens of the Russian Federation, public associations, political parties shall be entitled to conduct, in legal forms and by legal methods, propaganda encouraging the participation in elections, for or against any registered candidate (for or against a list of candidates), electoral association, electoral bloc as well as for or against a referendum, for or against participation in the referendum, or for or against matters issued at a referendum.

3. An equal access to the mass media shall be guaranteed to registered candidates, electoral associations, electoral bloc.

4. Campaigning during elections and referenda may be conducted through the mass media, by arranging and holding public events (public gatherings, meetings with voters, public debates and discussions, rallies, demonstrations, manifestations), by issuing and dissemination propaganda printed materials and utilizing other forms allowed by law. A registered candidate, electoral association, electoral bloc, initiative group for referendum shall be entitled to determine independently the format and the nature of their election campaigning through the mass media.

5. Members of election commissions, referendum commissions with decisive vote, representatives of the state bodies, bodies of local self-governments, , charity organizations, religious associations as well as persons holding state offices, state and municipal employees, military servicemen at their business or service hours shall not participate in election campaigning during elections and referenda.

6. When publishing the results of public opinion polls relating to elections or a referendum the mass media shall indicate the organization which conducted the poll, the time of the poll, the number of respondents (sampling), the method of gathering information, the precise formulation of the question, the statistical assessment of a possible error.

Article 38. Campaigning Time Terms

1. Election campaigning shall start on the day on which a candidate (list of candidates) is registered and end at zero hours one day prior to the voting day. When a repeat voting is to be held, election campaigning shall be resumed from the day on which a resolution to announce repeat voting is officially published and end at zero hours one day before the day of repeat voting.

2. Terms for election campaigning conducted by registered candidates, electoral associations, electoral blocs on channels of state and municipal TV and radio companies subject to provisions of Clause 1 of Article 39 of this Federal Law shall be set by federal laws, laws of Subjects of Russian Federation.

3. Campaigning at a referendum shall start from the publication day of the act of the relevant body or official setting the referendum and be terminated at 0:00 hours on the day prior to referendum day.

4. Printed propaganda materials previously displayed outside buildings and premises of election commissions, referendum commissions in accordance with a procedure set forth in this Federal law shall remain in place on the voting day.

5. Within 3 days prior to election day and referendum day, and on election day, referendum day, the publication of results of public polls, forecasts of election and referendum results or other research related thereto in the mass media shall be prohibited.

Article 39. General Terms and Conditions of the Access of Candidates, Electoral Associations, Electoral Blocs, Referendum Initiative Groups to Mass Media

1. Mass media outlets whose founders (co-founders) are state or municipal bodies, organizations, establishments, or who are financed completely or partially from the relevant budget (federal budget, budget of Subject of Russian Federation, local budget) or at the expense of the bodies of local self-government as well as those enjoying tax and other exemptions, if compared with other mass media, shall provide equal conditions of election campaigning to registered candidates, electoral associations, electoral blocs.

2. The mass media which do not come under the provisions of Clause 1 of this Article may provide air time, space in printed media to registered candidates, electoral associations, electoral blocs, referendum initiative groups on a contractual basis. Candidates, electoral associations, electoral blocs shall pay for air time and printed matter on equal terms and conditions exclusively through the appropriate electoral funds. In cases provided by federal constitutional laws, federal laws, lows of Subjects of Russian Federation a referendum initiative group shall pay for air time and printed matter through a referendum participation fund.

Article 40. Terms and Conditions for Campaigning through Electronic Mass Media

1. Registered candidates, electoral associations, electoral blocs, referendum initiative groups shall be entitled to free air time on the channels of TV and radio companies coming under the provisions of Clause 1 of Article 39 of this Federal law and engaged in TV and radio broadcasting in the territory wherein elections, a referendum is to be held. The said air time shall be provided during the prime periods when TV and radio programs are viewed and listened to by the greatest number of persons. The total free air time provided by each Russian national TV and radio company for campaigning in elections to federal bodies of state power shall be not less than one hour on working days. The total free air time provided by each regional TV and radio company for election campaigning in elections to federal bodies of state power and in elections to bodies of state power of Subject of Russian Federation shall be not less than 30 minutes on working days and, if the total broadcasting time of the TV and radio company is less than two hours, no less than one-fourth of the total broadcasting time. The said free air time shall be distributed between registered candidates and electoral associations, electoral blocs on an equal footing.

2. Not less than one-third of the total free air time shall be given to candidates, electoral associations, electoral blocs for joint discussions, roundtables and similar propaganda events. This part of free air time shall be accessible to all registered candidates, electoral associations, electoral blocs on an equal footing.

3. TV and radio companies coming under the provisions of Clause 1 of Article 39 of this Federal Law in regard of the level of elections shall reserve paid air time for election campaigning of candidates, electoral associations, electoral blocs. This air time shall be made available for a charge on a contractual basis to candidates, electoral associations, electoral blocs on their request. The charge shall be the same for all candidates, electoral associations, electoral blocs and announced no later than the day on which nomination of candidates (lists of candidates) begins or no later than ten days after announcement of the voting day in a referendum. Each candidate, electoral association, electoral bloc shall be entitled to a part of the total reserved air time given by division of this time by the total number of registered candidates (electoral associations, electoral blocs). The total reserved air time shall not be less than the total free air time provided in accordance with Clause 1 of this Article.

4. The provision of air time to registered candidates, electoral associations, electoral blocs, public associations, referendum initiative groups on the channels of the state TV and radio companies coming under the provisions of Clause 1 of Article 39 of this Federal Law shall be regulated by federal constitutional laws, federal laws, laws of Subjects of Russian Federation.

5. Expenses incurred by state municipal TV and radio companies in connection with the free allocation of air time to registered candidates, electoral associations, electoral blocs, initiative groups for referendum shall be covered by current funding from the budget.

Article 41. Terms and Conditions for Campaigning through Printed Mass Media

1. Periodicals coming under the provisions of Clause 1 of Article 39 of this Federal Law and distributed in the territories wherein elections, referenda are to be held, with the exception of publications founded by bodies of state power and bodies of local self-government exclusively for publication of official reports and materials, normative and other acts shall provide spaces for materials submitted by candidates, electoral associations, electoral blocs, referendum initiative groups. The total minimum space of this kind and the ratio between its parts provided by periodicals free of charge at the expense of their current budget financing and on a paid basis shall be established by federal constitutional laws, federal laws, laws of Subjects of Russian Federation. Specialized publications (children's, technical, scientific and others) may refuse to publish any propaganda materials whatsoever provided they completely abstain from any participation in the election campaign, preparation and holding of referenda.

2. The provisions of Clause 1 of this Article shall not apply to periodicals founded by registered candidates, electoral associations, electoral blocs, referendum initiative groups and electoral associations comprised in electoral blocs.

Article 42. Conditions of Election Campaigning Through Public Events

1. The state bodies, bodies of local self-government shall render assistance to registered candidates, electoral associations, electoral blocs, initiative groups of voters, initiative groups for referendum in arranging gatherings, meetings with voters, public debates and discussions, rallies, demonstration and manifestations, and to ensure security during such public events. The provision of buildings and facilities included in the state register of valuable objects of cultural heritage of peoples of the Russian Federation shall be prohibited for such purposes.

2. Applications to utilize premises for the purposes of the meetings of candidates their agents, agents of electoral associations, electoral blocs, with voters, gatherings of citizens for discussion of the referendum issues shall be considered by the state bodies, bodies of local self-government not later than3 days of the submission date. Applications submitted by the organizes of meetings, demonstrations and rallies shall be considered by the bodies of local self-government in compliance with legislation of the Russian Federation .

3. On the basis of a request of election commissions, referendum commissions premises which are suitable for holding mass events and are state- or municipality-owned, owned by state enterprises, institutions and organizations, shall be made available for a time established by an election commission, referendum commission for meetings of candidates, representatives of electoral associations, electoral blocs and their agents, referendum initiative groups with voters, referendum participants. If such premises were made available for mass events to one of the candidates, an electoral association, electoral bloc, the owner of the premises shall not refuse to provide the premises to another candidate, electoral association, electoral bloc. In this case, election commissions, referendum commissions shall provide equal conditions for registered candidates, electoral associations, electoral blocs, initiative groups of voters, initiative groups for referendum in holding public events.

4. When meetings of candidates, representatives of electoral associations, electoral blocs with voters - servicemen are organized outside the military unit, equal conditions shall be provided to all candidates, electoral associations, electoral blocs.

Article 43. Conditions for Dissemination of Printed Propaganda Materials

1. Registered candidates, electoral associations, electoral blocs, and during a referendum - initiative groups for referendum, public associations shall be entitled to issue printed propaganda materials. Printed propaganda materials or their copies shall be submitted to an election commission which registered the appropriate candidate (appropriate list of candidates), to a referendum commission which registered the referendum initiative group.

2. All printed propaganda materials shall contain the names and addresses of organizations (the first and last names, patronymics and places of residence of the persons) producing these materials, the name of the organization (the last and the first name and the patronymic of the person) that ordered the given printed materials and information about the number of copies printed and the date of publication. Distribution of propaganda materials which do not show this information shall be prohibited.

3. Propaganda printed materials may be displayed in any premises on any building, structure or other facilities with consent of the owner or tenant of the above structures. Displaying of the above materials at monuments, obelisks and buildings of historical, cultural or architectural value as well as on the premises of election commissions, referendum commissions and voting premises shall be prohibited.

4. The bodies of local self-government upon proposal of the election commission, referendum commission shall allocate special places for displaying printed propaganda materials in the territory of each electoral precinct. Equal conditions shall be provided to registered candidates, electoral associations, electoral blocs for displaying such materials The terms and procedure for arrangement of the above places shall be set forth by federal constitutional laws, federal laws, laws of Subjects of Russian Federation.

5. The election commission, referendum commission which was informed about distribution of false printed propaganda materials or printed propaganda materials which do not contain the information indicated in Clause 2 of this Article, shall take measures to check such activities and shall be entitled to appeal to the relevant law enforcement and other bodies with a request to check such illegitimate campaigning activities and confiscate illegitimate printed propaganda materials.

Article 44. Guarantees of the Rights of Referendum Participants to Timely Acquaintance with the Text of a Draft Law, Draft of a Normative Legal Act Put to a Referendum

Whenever a draft law of Subject of Russian Federation or a draft of a normative legal act of a body of local self-government is put to a referendum, not later than 30 days prior to the voting day each voter shall be entitled to receive the text of this draft from a body of local self-government. The responsibility for the production and distribution of this text shall be borne by the referendum initiative group.

Article 45. Misuse of the Right to Election Campaigning

1. Election commissions, referendum commissions shall monitor the adherence to the established procedure for campaigning during elections and referenda.

2. In conducting election campaigning, misuse of freedom of the mass media: propaganda of social, racial, national, hatred and enmity, appeal to seize power, to violent change of the constitutional system and disintegration of the state as well as propaganda of war and other forms of misuse of the freedom of the mass media not allowed by federal law shall be prohibited.

3. Candidates, electoral associations, electoral blocs, referendum initiative groups and their authorized representatives and other organizations directly or indirectly involved in election and referendum campaigning shall not bribe voters, referendum participants: they shall not give voters money, gifts and other tangible assets otherwise than for the performance of organizational work (attendance at election and referendum polling stations, collection of signatures and other propaganda-related activities), sell goods at reduced prices, distribute any goods free with the exception of printed, in particular, illustrative, materials and badges specially prepared for an election campaign, the preparation and holding of a referendum and render services free or at reduced prices. In their campaigning candidates, electoral associations, electoral blocs, referendum initiative groups and their authorized representatives or other persons and organizations shall not influence voters, referendum participants with promises of money, securities (including on the basis of voting returns) and other material benefits and provision of services on terms and conditions other than those provided by law.

4. From their registration date and until the election results are published registered candidates, electoral associations, electoral blocs, their agents shall not engage in charity activities, including such activities outside the boundaries of the electoral district in which the candidate (list of candidates) was nominated.

5. While participating in election campaigns the mass media indicated in Clause 1 of Article 39 of this Federal Law shall not publish materials which may damage the honor, dignity or business reputation of registered candidates, if these mass media cannot provide a possibility to a registered candidate to publish a denial or other explanations to defend his/her reputation before the end of the election campaigning period. A failure to provide, before the end of the election campaigning period, a possibility to a registered candidate to publish a denial or other explanations to defend his/her reputation in the mass media which published information capable of damaging the candidate's reputation may serve a reason for the legal prosecution of the given mass media.

6. If a registered candidate, electoral association, electoral bloc breach Clause 2 of this Article the election commission and other bodies, organizations and citizens indicated in Clause 4 of Article 63 of this Federal Law shall have the right to apply to a court for the withdrawal of the registration of the given candidate (list of candidates). If a registered candidate, electoral association, electoral bloc, referendum initiative group breach other rules for election and referendum campaigning laid down by Articles 37 - 45 of this Federal Law, an election commission, referendum commission may apply to appropriate law-enforcement and other bodies with a request that an end be put to unlawful propaganda activities and in addition to this the election commission may cancel the resolution on the registration of the candidate (list of candidates).

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